Since 2007, the use of electronic cigarettes has drastically increased worldwide, and more frequently we are being asked how e-cigarette vapour will affect Hochiki smoke detectors.
In order to understand how e-cigarette vapour will affect a smoke detector, we need to understand the particle size and distribution of aerosols produced by e-cigarettes. The Department of Chemistry at Monmouth University measured the particle size in an undiluted state using a spectral transmission procedure, and found that e-cigarette particles are typically between 0.25 – 0.45 microns, which is comparable to tobacco smoke (as shown on the graph below).
However, we must bear in mind, that the particles that reach a smoke detector will not be undiluted; they would have mixed with the saliva in the mouth, creating particle sizes more comparable to steam. We must therefore expect e-cigarettes to affect smoke detectors in the same way as steam.
Hochiki are renowned worldwide for manufacturing high quality, robust and reliable smoke detectors. We understand that false alarms are both disruptive and expensive, and as such we have incorporated a number of features in both our conventional and analogue smoke detectors that help protect against false alarms.
For example, Hochiki detectors contain a honeycomb structured mesh that has been specifically designed to maximise smoke flow, and improve tolerance against insects, dust and steam. If steam comes into contact with the mesh, the steam is forced to diffuse through the mesh resulting in dissipation of steam particles, thus reducing false alarms caused by steam.
Furthermore, Hochiki smoke detectors work using optical technology; i.e. if smoke enters the chamber it will cause the infrared light to scatter and the device will go into alarm. In order to protect against false alarms, Hochiki devices use an optimum scattering angle between the infrared LED and the Photo Diode which reduces sensitivity towards steam and oil.
There have been very few reports of e-cigarettes causing problems with smoke detectors. If you have purchased your smoke detector from a reputable manufacturer such as Hochiki, it is unlikely that a small amount of e-cigarette vapour will cause your device to go into alarm. Of course, if someone is standing directly under a detector and creating a generous amount of e-cigarette vapour, then the density of particles entering the chamber is likely to cause any smoke detector to go into alarm.
Whilst Hochiki devices are already considered to be amongst the most reliable in the world, our research and development department continue to experiment with the most innovative technology for use in future generations of Hochiki devices. This will guarantee that Hochiki devices continue to be some of the most robust and reliable devices on the market.
When faced with a large open space, such as a sports facility, shopping centre, museum or warehouse, you might be wondering which technology is most suitable. Vast open spaces can lead to rapid fire spread, therefore early detection is vital in order to reduce damage levels and avoid loss of life.
Your first option is probably going to be optical beam detectors. The advantage of beam detectors in these applications is their ability to detect when smoke is scattered over wide areas. This is achieved due to the beam detectors using the obscuration method, which detects fire due to smoke particles obscuring the infra-red light along the sensing path. When sufficient smoke blocks the infra-red light beam, reducing the received signal strength by a pre-determined setting, a fire condition is generated. Such detection sensitivity enables the beam to identify a fire before it spreads.
Of course, there are limitations to beam detectors; for example, reflections from nearby objects can cause problems with a beam detectors ability to cover the required distance, and sunlight can also interfere with the beam; but careful positioning can avoid these issues.
Optical beam detectors can be installed at a height of up to 25 metres, which means that very little unwanted obscuration is likely to occur, however a well-designed beam detector will still be designed to distinguish between unwanted obscuration (such as a bird breaking the beam) and a genuine fire condition. Unfortunately, mist, steam and dust can all obscure a beam in a similar way to smoke which can potentially cause a false alarm, therefore the installer will need to adjust the sensitivity of the beam detector to suit the environment in which it is being installed.
Warehouses and other areas that suffer from extreme changes in temperature, can pose particular problems; for example, a beam detector is susceptible to condensation and so in addition to regular cleaning, an anti-fogging kit may be required. Also, as the building expands and contracts with the differences in temperature, the beam may need re-aligning. This isn’t a problem with many modern beam detectors as they can automatically re-align themselves, however in an area that is regularly used for an activity such as welding, you will need to turn the auto-alignment function off as it will struggle to re-align due to the welding smoke.
Where a large volume is to be covered and high sensitivity is required, an aspirating system could be a viable second option. Air sampling systems consist of lengths of pipe with strategically placed sampling holes along its length. An air impeller is then used to draw air along the pipe from the sampling holes and through the detector measuring chamber. Most high sensitivity aspirating detectors use the obscuration method, and when a pre-defined density of smoke appears in the chamber, the system will go into alarm.
In most instances an aspirating system is set up using absolute scaling, whereby the system assumes that the normal environment has zero amount of smoke pollution. The sensitivity can then be set; for example, 0.05% obscuration per meter would be highly sensitive, which would be ideal for clean rooms and computer rooms etc. However, if you have a slightly more polluted environment, relative scaling might be more suitable. Relative scaling allows you to establish a pollution scale relative to the background level of pollution. ‘Zero’ would be defined as the average background level of pollution. This therefore means that aspirating systems can be used in less traditional environments, such as warehouses.
Again, when using aspirating systems, there are some potential issues to bear in mind; for example, dilution can be a potential problem if the pipe design has not been carefully considered. For example, if the detector only draws smoke in through 1 out of 10 sample holes, the density of smoke may be diluted so much that it fails to go into alarm. Other issues include; dirt building up in the sample pipes, moisture problems and air flow faults.
Dirt can build up in the pipes due to the continuous air flow, therefore they need to be cleaned regularly. This can be tricky if you have long or intricate pipe work, and often you will require a high pressure cleaning system to ensure it is done properly.
Aspirating systems are also susceptible to moisture, you may therefore need a moisture trap and a heater box (should the environment necessitate it).
A change in air pressure (in an aircraft hangar for example) can lead to an air flow fault. The installer will therefore need to position the exhaust inside the sample area, but make sure that the detector is outside the area prone to pressure change.
Ok, so let’s consider price point. Aspirating systems are designed to provide maximum performance on the assumption that the customer will be willing to pay more. So, if you require high performance, high reliability, and stability, then it is worthwhile investing in an aspirating system.
Beam detectors are less expensive, and if using a reflective beam detector instead of a transmitter and a receiver, costs are significantly reduced again.
Of course, ultimately, it depends on the environment; we are not saying that beam detectors and aspirating systems are completely interchangeable; they’re not! It’s just important to understand the scope and application of the different technology available!
For more information about Hochiki’s high sensitivity aspirating system, FIRElink, please click here.
For more information about Hochiki’s FIREbeam please click here.
In 2014, Firex International moved from the NEC in Birmingham to the ExCeL in London, and it’s fair to say that the move has caused some controversy within the UK’s fire industry!
UBM, the exhibition organisers, explained that the key reasons for the relocation were to make the show more accessible to international visitors and to move manufacturers and distributers closer to the end user. Having analysed our own data captured during the past 4 shows, we are able to reveal that; in 2013 (the final year in Birmingham) 26% of our visitors were from overseas, and in 2014 (the first year in London) we saw a huge increase with 44% of visitors from overseas. However, the novelty of London was short lived and the number of overseas visitors plummeted to 29% in 2015 and only rose slightly to 32% in 2016.
With regards to reaching end users; in 2014 and 2015 we gained a number of new contacts from the construction, retail, healthcare and public sectors, however in 2016 there was a noticeable reduction in the number of end users we saw. However, we were pleased with the number of electrical installers, facilities companies and security companies we met this year. In fact, the cross over from the security show (IFSEC) was particularly good; 45% of our visitors came from the security sector, which highlights the fact that so many security companies are now branching into fire safety.
We mustn’t forget that alongside the move to London, came the shift from a biennial exhibition to an annual exhibition which has also sparked some interesting debate. The fire industry is notoriously slow moving and so some companies are struggling to justify the expense of exhibiting at Firex every year. You might have noticed that some exhibitors have therefore decided to take the ‘one year on, one year off’ approach, whilst other exhibitors have decided to drastically reduce the size of their stand.
So how does this reflect on visitor numbers? Generally, we were pleased with both the number and quality of visitors to Firex, and have seen an increase in visitor numbers year on year for the past 3 years. It is however, probably worth noting that this year there was a substantial dip in visitors on day 3, but this could have been, in part, due to the flooding seen across the South East that morning which disturbed both rail and road networks.
Before moving to London, UBM were keen to highlight the fact that, being the capital city, London would carry its own allure. This is certainly true; with the London Eye, Tower Bridge, The O2 and many other landmarks so close to the ExCeL it is certainly something that exhibitors can take advantage of when entertaining guests; and so we did! This year, on the Wednesday evening, we took some of our customers over to the O2 via the Emirates Cable Cars, to enjoy an evening of music, food, drink and networking. We also took this opportunity to award 14 trophies in recognition of the tremendous sales growth seen by a number of our customers this year. The evening was thoroughly enjoyed by all, and a number of photos can be found on our Twitter page.
What are our plans for next year? Next year we are considering mixing things up a little; maybe changing the size, position and design of our stand completely! We currently have lots of ideas bouncing around, so watch this space!
Five years ago, the Cabinet Office announced their requirement for fully collaborative 3D Building Information Modelling (BIM) to be used for all centrally procured projects by April 2016. Having now passed that deadline, it might be shocking to learn that, according to the NBS National BIM Report 2016, only 54% of UK respondents are aware and currently using BIM.
In 2011, the Cabinet Office’s Construction Strategy Report suggested that many companies already had the capability of working in a fully collaborative 3D environment but a lack of compatible systems, standards and protocols was preventing wide spread adoption. Five years on and with the BIM framework now fully established, reports are finding that many businesses are still struggling to justify the investment in resources.
It could be argued that the fire safety industry is one of those sectors that have been particularly slow to adopt BIM; however Hochiki Europe is prepared to lead the way.
In 2014, we realised that in order for us to continue supplying fire detection equipment into centrally procured government projects, we would need to take a closer look at BIM. It soon became apparent that in order to satisfy the requirements of BIM level 2, we as a manufacturer, would need to create 3D objects with a specific set of parameters for all of our products. We began by speaking to a number of BIM consultants who all gave us some great advice, but we also needed some feedback from our customers.
At the tail end of 2014, we ran a survey asking installers three questions; are they aware of BIM? Are they using BIM? And if so, which 3D CAD software are they using? The results were as expected; 53% had never heard of BIM and only 8% were currently using BIM. However of those 8%, it appeared that Autodesk Revit was the most popular 3D CAD software. At the beginning of 2015, we took the plunge and commissioned Excitech to produce 20 Hochiki BIM objects, from both our fire detection and emergency lighting ranges, for the Autodesk Revit platform.
In June 2015, we become the UK’s first independent fire detection manufacturer to provide BIM components for the NBS National BIM library. The number of Hochiki downloads has been increasing month on month, which is a really positive reflection on the fire industry’s response to BIM. What’s more, at the tail end of 2015, we asked installers the same questions that we had back in 2014, and we were pleased to see that 17% were now fully aware and using BIM (9% increase), and the number of installers who had never heard of BIM dropped to 30% (22% decrease).
Hochiki Europe recognises that the BIM framework will help to improve collaboration across the construction sector, increase efficiency and a reduce costs; and this is something we are keen to champion. As a manufacturer, we need to support our customers by helping them to understand how and what BIM objects are used for. In recognition of this and almost one year since the release of our own BIM Objects, we decided to hold a webinar entitled ‘BIM: What you need to know for today and tomorrow’ co-presented with our BIM consultancy, Excitech. We invited installers, consultants, specifiers, architects and anyone else who might be interested in understanding the concept of BIM and how it is now impacting the fire industry. The event was a huge success with over 100 registrants; another sign that the fire industry is beginning to embrace BIM.
In order to support the fire industry further, Hochiki also has a presence on the FIA’s newly formed BIM steering group, designed to aid the adoption of BIM across the fire industry.
Since the release of our BIM objects, we have begun working with a number of customers on centrally procured projects; the largest being London’s University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (UCLH). We look forward to working with other customers within the BIM Level 2 framework.
For more information about Hochiki, or to download the BIM objects, please visit www.hochikieurope.com/bim
Regardless of the nature of your building, or what it is used for, having the right fire safety and emergency lighting equipment in place is imperative to make sure the people using the property are safe.
However, when your facility covers a vast, enclosed area, – like a tunnel, multi-storey car park, or even a large factory – ensuring optimum life safety throughout the property becomes a challenge using traditional equipment.
Every section of such a large space needs to be monitored to maximise the chances of identifying a fire, and allow the people responsible for life safety to act to minimise damage to the building and the threat to occupants’ well-being. A large number of conventional smoke and heat detection products would be needed to achieve the right level of coverage which, for the largest open areas, could be prohibitively expensive.
It can also be difficult to monitor environments like food processing lines or recycling plants effectively with standard systems. Large amounts of dust or vapour in the air, for example, can cause issues for conventional smoke or heat beam detectors, leading to false alarms or masking safety issues. Debris can also build up between components in conveyors and other mechanical equipment on a production line, causing excess heat and friction that can trigger a fire. This can happen anywhere along the line, making it vital that the best possible monitoring is in place.
In large office buildings, meanwhile, the long trays of cabling hidden away inside walls and cupboards can also be tricky to keep an eye on. Any damage to a section of cabling could lead to a fire that could easily spread through service ducts, unless building managers are alerted to the incident in time.
So what can the managers of these structures do to ensure their facility has the best possible fire safety monitoring in place?
Well, this is where Linear Heat Detection solutions can help. Consisting of a length of heat-sensing cable installed throughout the space in question, Linear Heat Detection systems can provide early indication of a fire or overheating anywhere along the cable. Not only are they able to trigger alarms for hot spots occurring on small sections of the cable, the products are able to identify the location of a fire to within a one metre section.
There are many Linear Heat Detection systems available to building managers, including a newly-launched range from Hochiki Europe. There are conventional systems, for example, that are designed to trigger an alarm once a hot spot reaches a set temperature, making them ideal for use in sensitive environments where excess heat could trigger a serious fire.
Analogue addressable equipment, on the other hand, features an electrical controller that monitors fluctuations in heat along the cable, sounding an alert when temperatures on a particular section indicate a fire.
Every building and structure is different, so it’s important that building managers ensure they have installed the best possible equipment for their facility’s requirements. A Linear Heat Detection system is a highly reliable and cost-effective solution for a host of infra-structure types, from long enclosed spaces, challenging, dusty environments and conveyor systems.
Talking with life safety experts can help managers identify the most appropriate technology for their needs. If you need more information on choosing the right Linear Heat Detection equipment, you can contact Hochiki Europe on 0044 (0)1634 266 566, or email email@example.com.
Alternatively, you can find out more about our Linear Heat Detection systems here.
We’ve talked in previous blogs about the issue of false alarms in commercial and public buildings. Over the last 15 years, the number of unnecessary fire alerts in the UK has more than halved, but false alarms remain a problem.
It was recently reported that Fire and Rescue Service crews in Clackmannanshire, Scotland, for example, attended nearly 500 unwanted fire alarms in 2015, while Carryduff fire station in Northern Ireland was called to 160 false alerts, representing 70 per cent and 50 per cent of call-outs respectively.
These levels of unnecessary alerts have ramifications for both fire services and businesses. Not only do false alarms distract fire and rescue teams from attending genuine incidents, they can cost businesses significant amounts of money from lost worker productivity and, in some cases, fines.
The infographic to the right highlights some shocking false alarm statistics; it also offers plenty of advice to help you cut the risk of false alarms across your premises.
Click the image to view a larger version of the infographic or click here.
Hochiki also offer a free false alarms whitepaper, download it here.
With the New Year now upon us, it’s time to reflect on some of the key developments affecting the life safety industry over the last year, as well as look forward to what we can expect from 2016.
A busy calendar
Perhaps the biggest event in the industry calendar in 2015 was FIREX International. One of Europe’s largest tradeshows for the fire safety and emergency lighting sector, FIREX brought together manufacturers and specifiers to discuss the latest industry topics and issues.
Hochiki Europe was on hand at the event to meet customers and explore ways to further improve best practice in the industry. Our team members explained to visitors the impetus behind our campaign to champion transparency in the life safety supply chain. We also showcased some of our latest product innovations, which were added to the National BIM Library.
Training and installation
The publication of studies by Hochiki Europe saw the industry spotlight fall on the two key issues of installer training and system installation.
The first report, in July, found that almost half of European fire safety equipment installers are not familiar with the latest fire and emergency lighting legislation. With more than two thirds of respondents saying they look to manufacturers specifically to help them understand regulations, the study provided a stark reminder to life safety manufacturers that they need to support installers to comply with legislation through specialist training.
In October, Hochiki Europe’s second study revealed that more than half of European businesses are risking the welfare of building occupants by failing to adjust their life safety technology when refurbishing space to accommodate changes in use. In response to the findings, we created a handy five-step guide to support businesses to make sure their fire safety and emergency lighting equipment is fit for the current needs of their premises.
But what does 2016 hold? Even at this early stage, it looks as if the New Year will be as fast-moving as 2015 has been.
With the construction industry still growing, albeit more slowly than the start of 2015, building specifiers will require innovative fire safety and emergency lighting technology capable of meeting the particular needs of their new developments. Enhanced functionality will be a key feature of any new equipment, to make it even easier for the people in charge of maintaining a building’s life safety systems to look after them and keep them in optimum working condition.
The use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) will also continue to increase, as the deadline for the Government’s 2016 Level 2 targets approaches. Hochiki Europe already provides BIM components for our fire and emergency lighting products – the first life safety system manufacturer to do so. Education and training for specifiers will be key to ensure the industry enjoys the full benefits of BIM.
Finally, the subject of emergency lighting remains high on the agenda, with the possibility that regulations will be updated in the New Year. Whatever changes take place though, life safety system manufacturers will be monitoring closely for any news on new legislation to ensure both their technology and their training support continue to help installers and building owners meet regulatory requirements.
What key trends do you think will affect the life safety sector in 2016?
We’ve written previously about how no two new buildings are the same. Variations in building fabric, combined with differences in interior layout and intended use all have to be taken into account by designers to ensure a new development offers optimum fire safety for future occupants.
Once built though, a property’s life safety requirements don’t remain static – they evolve, as extensions are added, the internal layout changes, or as it is used for different functions. The people installing and maintaining the building’s fire safety and emergency lighting systems need to keep up-to-speed with these changes and respond to them to make sure they remain compliant with regulations and, above all, fit for purpose.
Nevertheless, despite the importance of ensuring that life safety equipment is suitable for a building’s needs, our latest research has revealed that more than half of European businesses are failing to adjust life safety systems in accordance with changes in the use of their space. The study also found that 55 per cent of installers feel their customers are more concerned with initial expenditure than Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), while a fifth said they think building managers view maintenance of life safety systems as an unnecessary expense.
With demand for Grade A office space outstripping supply in many major cities, it is understandable that organisations are working with their existing space by investing in fit outs and refurbishments to accommodate their evolving needs. However, fire safety solutions are installed with the current use of space in mind so to disregard this when altering layout or function is a potentially fatal oversight – risking the health and safety of building occupants.
So what do building owners need to take into account when renovating their properties to ensure their fire safety and emergency lighting equipment remains up to code? Here are our top tips:
- Make sure life safety system log book records are up to date – each maintenance visit must be logged and any findings noted in the log book – which must be kept near the building’s life safety systems’ control panels.
- Check the fire safety equipment complies with the latest legislation for the building’s intended use – ask your installation/maintenance company for guidance here, or approach the manufacturer of the equipment directly, all equipment should be third party approved and be suitable for the environment.
- Make sure the emergency lighting offers the right lux levels for the needs of the development – ask your lighting designer/installer for advice on the performance of your emergency lighting system, or again, approach the manufacturer directly for access to photometric data. Escape routes, changes in floor level and safety equipment locations all need specific light levels under BS5266.
- Check the building’s emergency exits are clear and that the appropriate exit signage is in place for the building’s intended use – this should be done on a regular basis as unannounced spot checks by Fire Safety Enforcement Officers and the Health & Safety Executive can result in hefty fines.
- Ensure fire detectors are clean and emergency lighting batteries are fully charged – your life safety systems maintenance provider should be able to demonstrate that they have cleaned your fire detection equipment in accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations. Emergency lighting systems that rely on battery back-up should be kept fully charged to be able to provide the minimum 3 hour illumination in the event of a power outage, as recommended in BS5266.
With European GDP set to rise by 1.7 per cent this year alone, it’s likely that many businesses will be forced to continue to adapt their existing workspace, rather than move to new premises. Nevertheless, this shouldn’t be to the detriment of overall safety. Life safety industry members need to raise awareness of the issues around upgrading fire safety and emergency lighting equipment in line with a building’s changing needs, and support businesses in regularly reviewing the status of their technology.
This is something Hochiki Europe has been doing for many years. As standard, all product training provided to our customers’ engineers is completely free of charge, ensuring our products are always installed to the highest degrees of skill and safety out in the field.
Taking advantage of such support, building owners can be confident their fire safety and emergency lighting equipment is fit for purpose, whatever use the premises are put to, ensuring compliance with legislation and upholding the safety and wellbeing of occupants.
In this blog we have invited Ian Watts to talk about issues surrounding emergency lighting design. Ian sits on BS 5266 part 1 as the independent industry expert on new technologies and has been lecturing on the ICEL competent engineer course and advanced maintenance and testing course for the last 3 years.
Ian has compiled a short list of safety considerations for emergency lighting designers and installers:
- The system should protect users from the risks generated by sudden failure of the mains lighting supply. The code of practice BS 5266-1 not only specifies requirements for high risk task areas, but it also makes recommendations for areas which are not normally hazardous.
- The system should protect those occupants who may be staying in the building during the supply failure. Some occupants such as residents in care homes, may be difficult to evacuate and subject to a stay put policy, in which case the refugee locations need to be assessed for emergency lighting. In other areas it may be decided that occupants can stay put; either to work or for leisure activities. In this case it is important to ensure that their evacuation route is still viable even if the supply failure continues for an extended period.
- Current legislation, although very in-depth, doesn’t account for unique building features; it is therefore the responsibility of the risk assessor to design a system that compensates for any additional risks to the occupants.
- It is also important to ensure that the emergency lighting design compliments the design of the existing fire alarm system. For example, addressable fire detection systems give precise information of the location of smoke in a building, this information can be used to create intelligent escape routes.
- Automatic testing becomes more important particularly if occupants are staying in the building. It is important for the operator of the premises to be confident of the emergency duration available from their emergency luminaires.
- Communication between components and systems are increasingly important; not only to monitor testing, but also to control operation. For example, consider enabling maintained exit signs to be switched off from a central point when the building is empty.
- LEDs Offer high operating efficiency due to their extended life expectancy and lower energy consumption; this therefore reduces maintenance costs. They are also compact and can be produced as attractive luminaires.
- There are great advantages to luminaires that use lithium batteries and potentially other power sources such as super capacitors. It is worth investigating all options available.
Ian’s expertise in all things lighting can be applied to design advice, training and presenting. Contact Ian direct using the following email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
To learn more about Hochiki’s Emergency Lighting System visit: http://www.hochikieurope.com/firescape
You may remember we wrote a couple of months ago about how important it is for the people installing and maintaining life safety systems to have in-depth knowledge of the latest fire safety and building legislation. This understanding is vital to give building owners the support they need to comply with increasingly rigorous regulations and stay up to date with industry developments.
In spite of the importance of such insight though, a recent study carried out by Hochiki Europe has found that nearly half (49%) of European life safety equipment installers are not familiar with the latest fire and emergency lighting legislation. What’s more, nearly two-fifths (39%) of respondents admitted they had not received any fire or emergency lighting training in the last two years.
Hochiki Europe’s research found significant discrepancies in the level of legislative knowledge between sectors as well. Eight out of ten (83%) respondents feel they have enough insight to deliver the best fire safety solution for public sector or leisure projects, while less than a fifth (18%) said they felt this way about offshore environments, a key growth sector for European installers.
The lack of understanding revealed by the study is worrying – it potentially means that thousands of businesses across Europe are not compliant with the latest guidance and legislation, jeopardising the safety and wellbeing of building users.
However, installers do understand and see the benefits of training in enabling them to carry out their work effectively. According to the research, nine in ten installers felt their clients would benefit from them receiving more training. Of those that had received training, three-quarters felt confident or very confident in understanding different types of fire safety technology, and recommending and designing a fire safety solution.
Moreover, while 60% expect industry bodies to keep them updated on legislation, over two thirds (67%) look to life safety system manufacturers to give them the training they need to properly support their customers.
With this in mind, it’s clear that manufacturers need to take greater responsibility for improving knowledge about regulations among installers. This is something that Hochiki Europe has been dedicated to doing for a number of years now, through comprehensive CPD courses and other specialist training.
The survey results highlight just how vital it is that development programmes continue to be provided for all members of the fire industry. Not only will they help installers feel more confident in their jobs, they will support installers in protecting the lives of people across Europe by ensuring that every building, no matter its function, meets the latest fire safety standards.
To find out more about Hochiki’s CPD offering, please click here.